Above: Real Australians in real slouch hats. Australian engineer reinforcements disembarking from Queen Elizabeth at Port Tewfik (now Suez port) on 24 November 1941, on the way to war in the Middle East, little realizing that a few weeks later war would break out much nearer home. Photo by John Murphy. Author’s collection.
Remember the controversy when Ben Affleck’s Argo was released in 2012 ? The film was about the 6 US embassy staff who hid out in Tehran during the Iranian hostage crisis. A throwaway line – “Brits turned them away, Kiwis turned them away, Canadians took them in” caused great offence in New Zealand and Britain for its inaccuracy. Of course, Hollywood has been doing history inaccurately for a very long time. And since when is entertainment meant to be historically accurate anyway? Here are three Hollywood efforts that reference Australians at war, with varying results.
The Man from Down Under, 1943
MGM’s comedy-drama The Man from Down Under was made in Hollywood in 1943, during World War II’s darkest days. A vehicle for British actors Charles Laughton and Binnie Barnes, supported by US actors Richard Carlson and Donna Reed, it was perhaps intended to help educate US viewers about Australia as a trusted new ally in the war against Japan. Otherwise, it’s hard to understand why it was made. The film was not very well received anywhere.
The plot tells the story of two French orphans brought back to Australia at the World War I by “Jocko” Wilson, a lovable, gambling, heavy drinking, rough-tough Aussie soldier. The children grow up in Australia, “Nipper” (Carlson) becoming a champion boxer while Mary (Reed) attends a finishing school as World War II looms. There are several threads to the plot, including Nipper and Mary discovering they are not biologically brother and sister as they thought, and, in the film’s denouement, Jocko leading the successful fight against some downed Japanese airmen, who briefly take over his north Queensland hotel. It was directed by Robert Z Leonard, the director of numerous successful films, including The Divorcee (1930) and The Great Ziegfeld (1936).
Australian reviewers were unusually forceful in their criticism of the film. We can assume this relates to how a nation at war liked to imagine its contemporary heroes. Laughton, in his mid forties and overweight, was already famous for character roles in The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), Mutiny on the Bounty (1935) and The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939). He did not resemble the imagined Australian “everyman” of World War II recruiting posters, who was a bronzed young male, tall and vibrant. He may even have contributed to this impression himself, as he was quoted by Australian journalist Lon Jones saying “I am just a fat ugly pig in real life. I…have to depend solely on…dramatic ability to transition on the screen…” Still, Wallace Beery, who was originally considered for the role, was even older and of a similar, solid physical type.
The Australian complaints published were generally focused on the film’s “inaccuracies,” which were apparently many, despite Lon Jones acting as the film’s advisor. The Sydney Morning Herald described the film as “a comedy of errors”. The Sydney Tribune described it as “absurd,” while the Daily Telegraph took great offence, describing it as “Hollywood tripe…Australians are not all rustics and mental deficients” (sic). The paper even reported the views of servicemen who had seen the film, under the heading “Illiterate film dialogue resented“. But it was a review by the US Motion Picture Daily that most accurately summarized the film’s problems- “It is (the)…listless development of the story…which cause (the film) to bog down.” Not even Laughton seems to be able to inject either dramatic interest or enough humour into his character.
History records that an Australian serviceman really did bring a French orphan (just one, not two) back to Australia at the end of World War I. In late 1918, little Henri Hermene attached himself to Tim Tovell and his brother at the base of 4 squadron, Australian Flying Corps. They struck up a friendship and the Tovells decided to smuggle the little boy back home to Queensland, Australia. And they did, and adopted him, with some official assistance – in the shape of the Queensland Premier. He was smuggled first to England and then Australia, on troopships, some of the time in an oat bag, as the Hollywood film also shows. It is such a good story it really could make a great movie, despite Henri’s untimely death in 1928.
The Desert Rats, 1953
Australian actor Charles Tingwell had great memories of working on Robert Wise’s The Desert Rats for Twentieth Century Fox. Tingwell – still working to establish himself, was impressed by Wise’s eye for authenticity, professionalism and commitment to thorough rehearsal. And he liked the fact that rubbing shoulders with distinguished British actors (Richard Burton, James Mason and Robert Newton) were a few Australians other than himself; “Chips” Rafferty, and briefly – Michael Pate, Frank Baker and John O’Malley.
This 1953 war film is based on the defence of the port and township of Tobruk, in Libya in 1941. Between April and November allied soldiers, mostly from the Australian 9th Division and for much of the time under the command of Australian General Leslie Morshead, defended the position successfully against German and Italian forces. Filmed in California but with a careful eye to capture what Richard Keenan describes as “the authentic feel of wartime newsreels,” it is a fairly formulaic but entertaining war drama. Burton plays a tough young British officer, whose Australian soldiers come to respect him. The New York Times reviewer reported it was “a conventional reshuffling of reminiscent characters, incidents and… heroics,” and added that the play between Burton and Newton as his cowardly alcoholic former teacher, often killed the film’s pace.
The film’s plot also took some liberties with the truth; such as the unnamed Australian General’s accurate guess about where the German tank attack would occur, or in using the title “Desert Rats” (the real nickname for the British 7th Armoured Division) rather than the more accurate “Rats of Tobruk”, but there was enough that was authentic that complaints were muted. The Tobruk garrison’s aggressive patrolling, effective use of artillery and willingness to close for combat was generously acknowledged.
Needless to say, any half-good film of an Australian military victory is likely to gain approval with Australian audiences. The proof of this film’s popular acceptance is that The Desert Rats continues to be played on Australian TV, 70 years after it was made, particularly on days of military remembrance. The only major annoyance for this modern viewer is the endless inclusion of “Waltzing Matilda” on the musical soundtrack, which is as tired a cliche as the kookaburra laugh that appears in every single Hollywood jungle film.
The Rat Patrol, 1966-1968
United Artists TV produced The Rat Patrol in 1966-8. It really has nothing to do with any combat experiences by Australians, or anyone else for that matter, except that the leading character – US Army Sergeant Sam Troy (Christopher George) wears an iconic Australian Army slouch hat with the Australian Army’s rising sun badge – through all 58 x 30 minute episodes. It is never explained to the viewer why Troy wears it, or why only one of his four-man team wears a sensible US Army M1 steel helmet.
If you haven’t seen any episodes, the plots usually involve the four Rats in jeeps mounted with heavy machine guns causing mayhem amongst lumbering German desert convoys.
While the series was popular in the US, it caused much consternation in Britain – the BBC pulled it after showing only a few episodes. British ex-service groups were incensed that while apparently based on the adventures of the British 8th Army and its Long Range Desert Group, it made scant reference to them and gave the impression the Desert war was largely a US affair (although one member of the Rat Patrol is English). In Australia, there was a similar reaction from the Returned Services League, but instead of pulling it, TV network ATV-O added an apologetic preamble every time the show screened. This reminded viewers the series was fictional, “although based on… the exploits of Australian and other Commonwealth units.” The slouch hat was, it explained, “a prized souvenir among the allied troops.” Yes, really.
Pressed to comment at the time, Christopher George claimed he wore a slouch hat because he was of Greek ancestry, and wanted to acknowledge Australians who had fought in Greece. Maybe. But he had previously complained no one recognized him on a visit to New York because he wasn’t wearing that “crazy ANZAC hat,” suggesting The Rat Patrol‘s array of non-regulation hats was actually a production decision.
In Australia the series was quickly relegated to the 5.30 or 6.00 pm weekday time-slot on TV, wedged after shows like I Love Lucy and My Three Sons, but before the Evening News; the time of evening when teenage boys needed something on the TV to keep them occupied. The series is still widely available on DVD and a few episodes are on social media.
If you are interested in other fleeting but humorous Hollywood representations of the Australian military from the mid 1960s, try McHale’s Navy (the 1964 movie). But the Royal Australian Navy’s fight scene in Donovan’s Reef (1963) is probably the most amusing, as well as being veteran actor Clyde Cook‘s final film.
- Simon Callow (2012) Charles Laughton: A Difficult Actor. Random House.
- Richard C. Keenan (2007) The Films of Robert Wise. Scarecrow Press
- Anthony Hill (2002 & 2009) Young Digger. Penguin Books
- Howard Hughes (2012) When Eagles Dared: The Filmgoers’ History of World War II. Bloomsbury Publishing
- Colonel Ward A. Miller (2014) The 9th Australian Division Versus the Africa Corps: An Infantry Division Against Tanks – Tobruk, Libya, 1941.
- Mitch McKay (2012) Gone but not forgotten, the Clyde Cook story. Mitchell McKay
- The Australian War Memorial – Collections materials relating to Henri and Tim Tovell, The Rats of Tobruk and the 9th AIF division etc.
- Screen Australia Digital Learning. Robin Hughes (Nov 12 2002) Charles Tingwell interview
- Anthony Hill Books. This site includes other photos of Henri Tovell
- Lantern the Digital Media Project
- Harrison’s Reports, August 7, 1943, Page 127.
- Motion Picture Daily, Wed August 4 1943, Page 4
- Modern Screen, Jan – Nov 1944, Page 12
- Screenland, May 43 – Oct 44, Page 64
- Via National Library of Australia’s Trove
- The Argus (Melb) Thu 28 May 1942 Page 3 “The Man from Down Under”
- Sydney Morning Herald Sat 12 June 1943, Page 7 “Charles Laughton Scared, Nervous of Anzac role”
- Sydney Morning Herald Mon 26 June 1944 Page 4. “New Films. The Man from Down Under”
- Sydney Morning Herald Sat 17 July 1943 Page 7. “When Stars have fallen”
- Singleton Argus (NSW) Frid 2 March 1945 Page 1. “Boosting Immigration, Films advocated by Senator”
- The Tribune (Syd) Thurs 29 June 1944, Page 5.
- The Daily Telegraph (Syd) Mon 11 Sept 1944.
- The Daily Telegraph (Syd) Tues 27 June 1944 Page 5
- The Daily Telegraph (Syd) Mon 23 Mar 1953, Page 7 ‘Rats film may be inaccurate’
- Sydney Morning Herald Mon 27 Apr 1953, Page 3 “London Critics Praise The Desert Rats”
- The Herald (Melb) Sat 22 Aug 1953, Page 4 “Tribute to Diggers”
- Weekly Times (Melb) Wed 26 Aug 1953, Page 56 “Australian soldiers stars of film”
- Via Newspapers.com
- The Brooklyn Daily Eagle 3 May 1943, Page 7
- Daily News (New York) 26 Sept 1943, Page 39C
- Detroit Free Press, 25 Jun 1966, Page 14
- Fort Lauderdale News 23 Sept 23 1966
- Lancaster New Era, 21 Oct 1966, Page 11
- The Observer (London, England) , 8 Jan 1967, Page 23
- The Observer (London,England) 15 Jan 1967, Page 23
- The Tribune (Indiana) · 11 Feb 1967, Sat Page 11
- The Age. (Aust) 25 Jul 1967, Page 4
- Sydney Morning Herald 20 Oct 1967, Page 10
- New York Times Archive
- New York Times, May 9, 1953. Film Review The Desert Rats with Richard Burton and Robert Newton.