Ivy Schilling in early 1913. Photo by May and Mina Moore, Sydney. The Stage Pictorial, April 1913. Via State Library of Victoria
The 5 second version
Born in Richmond, an inner suburb of Melbourne Australia in 1892, Ivy Schilling (spelled Shilling after 1914) became a hugely popular dancer on the Australian and British stage. Vibrant, good looking and energetic, her acrobatic and audacious style of dance was enthusiastically received. Her reputation as a typical “Australian girl” was also fed by clever publicity, including claims of her outstanding athletic prowess. She was photographed numerous times, won various competitions and often provided commentary on a wide range of topics. From 1914 she worked in Britain, then making a triumphant return to Australia in 1921. She commenced a tour of the US in the 1922, however a serious injury appears to have brought her dancing to an end almost immediately. By the mid 1920s she was living in Hollywood, associating with some leading figures including actor Enid Bennett and Producer Charles Christie. After a private visit to Australia in 1928 she returned to England for good. In 1932 she married an Australian-born surgeon, retiring from public life. She died in England in 1972.
Ivy growing up
Ivy May Schilling was born in George St, Richmond, an inner suburb of Melbourne, on August 4, 1892, the third of four children of Julius Schilling and Louisa nee Baldrock.Victoria, Births, Deaths and Marriages. Birth certificate 26916/1892 Her father was described as a baker on her birth certificate, but by the 1910s he was listed in directories and electoral roles as a carrier. Ivy’s German grandfather had arrived in Melbourne at the end of the goldrush era on the ship Persian, in March 1862. The family had prospered, and by 1915, the Schillings lived at a comfortable home at 5 Raglan St, Saint Kilda East.Julius and Louisa and Ivy’s brother Royal occupied the home for many years. It was later converted to apartments, and continues as this today
As was usual for working class children of the era, Ivy left school at about age 13, at the end of 1905, already with a reputation for giving entertaining performances.She attended South Yarra State School. See Prahran Chronicle (Vic) 14 Dec 1901, P3 and Prahran Chronicle (Vic) 16 Dec 1905 P3, via National Library of Australia’s Trove The National Library of Australia’s Michelle Potter notes the contemporary newspaper story that Ivy had pleaded with her mother to be allowed to learn to dance, although there are numerous examples of other talented working class children being encouraged to try the stage by their parents, as an alternative to the inevitable factory work or an apprenticeship.Michelle Potter (2005). A variant childhood story was that her mother was keen for her to take up piano. See West Bridgeford Advertiser 27 April 1918, P4 via British Library Newspaper Archive
Ivy quickly became one of the leading students at Jennie Brenan’s dance school.The Bendigo Independent (Vic.) 16 May 1906, P1, via National Library of Australia’s Trove As Historian Janet McCalman has pointed out, Jennie Brenan was to develop a close association with JC Williamson’s, the Australian theatre monopoly, which soon meant exciting opportunities for young dancers like Ivy.Potter states her first stage appearance was in a Mother Goose panto
Ivy dances with JC Williamson’s
By 1910, 18 year old Ivy was a prominent dancer in the JC Williamson’s Pantomime company, performing throughout cities in Australia and New Zealand – in various pantomimes including Jack and Jill and Aladdin.See for example The Darling Downs Gazette (Qld.), 29 Jun 1909, P8 via Trove and Takanaki Herald 26 August 1909 P3 via National Library of New Zealand, Papers Past
Ivy’s breakthrough appearance appears to have been in the comic opera Our Miss Gibbs, in Sydney in September, 1910. Teamed with Fred Leslie (1882-1965), she appeared in La Danse du Vaurien -a combination of Apache and acrobatic dancing. The couple evoked “thunders of applause” from the audience and great reviews from newspapers.See for example Evening News (Syd), 26 Sep 1910, P2 via National Library of Australia’s Trove Fred Leslie remained her partner, off and on, for at least seven years.
Ivy saves a drowning surfer
Towards the end of Our Miss Gibb’s Sydney run, Melbourne’s Punch could tell its readers that audiences had “gone mad” over Ivy. “She is the best girl dancer yet found in Australia… who belongs to the athletic cult and practices assiduously with the heavy dumbbells and the parallel bars…”Punch (Melb) 2 March 1911. P24 via National Library of Australia’s Trove And indeed she quickly developed a reputation as a health-conscious, outdoorsy, sports-loving Australian girl.
At the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century, Australians were sometimes represented in literature as superior variations of the “British type.” For example, a character in E W Hornung’s 1890 book A Bride from the Bush speaks of “the typical Australian…[as] one of the very highest if not the highest development of our species.”E W Hornung (1890) A Bride from the Bush via Project Gutenburg, P107 Emerging actors were sometimes popularised because they appeared to fit this representation – and being physically active and loving the outdoors were key elements of the stereotype.
In March 1911, newspapers reported that Ivy, then performing in Sydney, had saved Tommy Walker, a well known surfer, who had been “seized by cramp” while swimming at Manly beach. “Taking the 10 stone lad under her arm… [Ivy] brought him back to the sands and safety… Miss Schilling, after her fine performance, resumed her dip in the surf as if nothing had happened,” reported Sydney’s Sun Sun (Syd) 23 March 1911, P1 via National Library of Australia’s Trove It was a good story, but suspiciously it coincided with newspaper articles showing Ivy’s modelling physical culture (as above) and with her success in the West Pictures’ Sirens of the Surf – a competition and short film. Shown as part of a mixed theatre program, the short film profiled a number of female Australian swimmers and was directed by Franklyn Barrett.See Eric Reade, P47 Theatre audiences could then vote for their favourite siren, and not surprisingly, Ivy won.The Sydney Morning Herald 13 Mar 1911, P11 and National Advocate (NSW) 31 Mar 1911 P2 via National Library of Australia’s Trove
The story of Ivy in the surf was revisited in 1912, when the ever-helpful Sydney Sun reported she had bumped into a shark while swimming at Manley.It transpired the shark was dead. The Sun (Syd) 21 Feb 1912, P6 via National Library of Australia’s Trove Clearly keen to keep up public interest in her, a week later she contributed the (then revolutionary) view that Australian girls should be allowed to play football.National Advocate (NSW) 21 Feb 1912, P4 via National Library of Australia’s Trove If she really believed this, she was a century ahead of her time, as women’s football did not begin in Australia until the 21st century.
Ivy Schilling, the genius?
In 1913, the Sun’s theatre critic, “Playgoer,” gave voice to the extraordinary enthusiasm some felt about 21 year old Ivy, and the need to find suitable roles in Australia for such a talent, lest she disappear overseas. Under the heading “Is Ivy Schilling a genius?” the following appeared;
As a dancer Miss Schilling has a genius, a temperament remarkably her own and remarkably vivid. Whenever she has had the proper opportunity… she has been – electrical, unique…. I have not seen a dramatic power like hers in any other recent Australian dancer. I saw Miss Schilling in some production (heaven knows which, of them) in a “Danse du Vaurien” … and the splendid expressiveness of that dance is not to be forgotten. I saw her again, revealed by Mr. Fred Leslie, in a dance which he called’ the ‘Juno Kata,’ placed more or less incongruously in… musical comedy. Here she was once more superb… What we want for Australian dancers, when rare temperaments like that of Miss Schilling… is opportunity — opportunity for their own development, and opportunity to make themselves understood by the public…. They need -sympathy, appreciation, comprehension; and, above all, a chance..The Sun (Syd) 25 May, 1913, P15 via National Library of Australia’s Trove
In June 1913, Ivy gained another sort of publicity when she was named as one of the co-respondents in the “society divorce” of Walter Oswald Watt and Muriel Maud Watt. While the case attracted much press attention, it appears to have had no negative impact at all on Ivy’s career.Watt was a well known society figure and had been aide-de-camp to the state governor. For reporting see numerous articles on National Library of Australia’s Trove, including Australasian (Melb) … Continue reading
Newspaper reports aside, the most convincing evidence of Ivy’s booming popularity at this time can be found in her surviving JC Williamson’s contracts, now held in the Australian Performing Arts Collection in Melbourne. In April 1911, Ivy was contracted at £7 a week, with a guaranteed 45 weeks work. In April 1912 this was boosted to £9 per week and in April 1913 it was boosted again to £12 a week. In her final JC Williamson’s contract of 1914, she was offered £17 per week for the part year she was to work. By comparison, in 1907 the Australian “basic wage” was set at £2 and 2 shillings.Known as the “Harvester Judgement,” the basic wage was intended to set the living wage an unskilled labourer and dependent family would need Thus Ivy was extremely well paid for a 19 year old.
Ivy also owed at least some of her success to having teamed with Fred Leslie, an experienced dancer and choreographer, ten years her senior. Several of her highly successful turns are known to have been choreographed by him, although given their success as a partnership over a long period of time, a degree of collaboration also seems likely.
In 1913, JC Williamson’s launched a major revue that opened in December 1913 – called Come Over Here.For more on this, see Veronica Kelly (2013) Not all reviewers were enthusiastic about this piece of “overcrowded entertainment” – but Ivy and Fred Leslie’s turn in “the Spider Web dance” was universally well received.Referee (Syd) 24 Dec 1913, P15 Via National Library of Australia’s Trove A very young Robert Helpmann (1909-1986) saw the show in Adelaide, and was enthralled by the dance.Anna Bemrose (2006) P50
After a paired-down version opened for a season in Melbourne, and despite the very generous rate of pay she was on, Ivy Schilling did what so many hopeful Australian performers did. She packed up and headed to London, departing on the Otranto in late June 1914.
She provided one final interview for the Australian press that expressed her high hopes. Perth’s Daily News reported: “Ivy Schilling is a tonic. She is so full of optimism, She sat on her bunk on the R.M.S Otranto this morning, and talked more than hopefully of her prospective tour of England. ‘I have been wanting to see the outer world for a long time… I was born in Melbourne— never been outside of Australasia’ “The Daily News (Perth) 30 Jun 1914, P6 Via National Library of Australia’s Trove
Ivy in England, 1914-1921
Despite not having a pre-arranged contract in London, and arriving only a few days before the outbreak of war, Ivy found work quite quickly in the patriotic themed vaudeville show Europe, that opened at the Empire. Fred Leslie had arrived only a few weeks after Ivy, and the couple introduced the popular “Ju-jitsu” dance they had performed in Australia. By December 1914 the couple were appearing in Birmingham, where the dance was described as “the most astonishing piece of dancing likely to be witnessed…for some time.”Birmingham Daily Gazette, 28 December 1914, P6, via British Library Newspaper Archive Compared to the experiences of so many, Ivy’s transition to working in London was remarkably smooth.
Ivy dropped the spelling of her surname “Schilling” for the more British sounding “Shilling” on arrival – of course she was not the only Australian of German origins to do this at the time. The family of Australia’s leading General of the First World War, John Monash, had done the same.Some went further than a name change. Ivy’s father maintained the pretence he was Irish-born all his life. See Births, Deaths and Marriages Victoria. Death Certificate, 1943, Julius Schilling … Continue reading
Ivy’s success on the British stage is well documented. She appeared in British producer Alfred Butt’s production of Irving Berlin’s first musical – Watch Your Step, at the Empire Theatre in 1915, followed by a long run in the musical Betty at Daly’s Theatre. Looking back several years later, she complained that much of 1915 was spent “playing parts and singing” and it was not until 1916 that she was given dancing parts again in Three Cheers. Dancing in this revue was again choreographed by Fred Leslie and he also featured as Ivy’s partner.Theatre,(Sydney) 1 Jan 1921, P1, via State Library of Victoria Variety reported that her dances with Fred Leslie became “the talk of London.”Variety 1 May 1917, P5, via the Internet Archive
She appeared in a short film in 1919 – one of the Around the Town series that now appears to be lost.Kinematograph Weekly (UK) 30 October 1919, P112. Via British Library Newspaper Archive
She continued to provide public commentary and posed for endless photos. In 1920 her comment that Jazz was “stupid and vulgar” gained her some attention.Sunday Times (Perth) 4 Jan 1920, P5 via More importantly however, by 1920 she commented on the growing popularity of picture shows. She observed that during the war, audiences of soldiers on leave helped to fill live theatre shows. British theatre historian J P Wearing notes that during London performances of Shanghai in 1918, which was headlined by the newly arrived Australian Dorothy Brunton (1890-1977), in addition to featuring Ivy, Australian soldiers on leave shouted the greeting “Coo-ee” from the stalls.J.P. Wearing (1982), P484, citing The Stage newspaper However, by 1920 tastes had changed. Since the war’s end, Ivy thought London people had “gone crazy over picture shows… so much so that a number of well known theatres had been sold and turned into picture houses.”Daily Telegraph (Syd) 20 Sept 1920, P6, via National Library of Australia’s Trove Of course, it was an observation many performers were making at the time.
In September 1920, Ivy arrived back in Australia on the SS Orsova, with a contract to perform for the Tivoli circuit. As Michelle Potter notes, the contract covered her passage from England and allowed for an extraordinary salary of £100 per week Also on board was Dorothy Brunton, contracted to perform for JC Williamson’s. She received a grand welcome home and journalists clamoured to interview her: “Australia always admired her ability and England has endorsed that opinion” announced Table Talk, approvingly. Table Talk (Melb) 16 Sep 1920 P23 via National Library of Australia’s Trove She appeared with Vera Pearce in Robert Greig’s production of the musical Maggie, followed by a tour in the operetta The Lilac Domino, followed by some variety at the Tivoli.The Daily Telegraph (Syd) 23 May 1921, P3 via National Library of Australia’s Trove
In 1921 she teamed with Harold or Leon Kellaway (1897-1990) later known as Leon Jankowsky or simply Jan Koswka, he was the brother of Alec and Cecil Kellaway who would later join her in the US.
Also while in Australia, she took a cameo role as a dancer in Raymond Longford and Lottie Lyell’s feature The Blue Mountains Mystery. Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper (1977) P145 When the film was released in the UK, Ivy’s name was prominently listed – she was the best known of the cast for British audiences. Unfortunately, this “society drama” is another lost Australian film.
Ivy arrived back in Britain in November 1921, Kellaway arrived on another ship at about the same time.
Ivy in the US, 1922-1928
After some work in England, in August 1922, Ivy travelled to New York. She had been contracted by producer George Choos (1879-1961) for his new revue The Realm of Fantasy.also known as The Land of Fantasy After an awkward moment with her visa,the Australian quota for entry to the US in August had been filled and Ivy claimed she was unaware of visa requirements. See The Standard Union (New York) 19 Aug 1922, P2 and New York Tribune, 19 Aug … Continue reading Ivy started performing in the show with her partner Leon Kellaway – first in Connecticut and then, very briefly, in New York. But, after only a few days she left the show and was replaced.The Billboard, 23 Sept 1922, P17, via Lantern Digital Media Project US papers gave no indication as to why.
However, soon after this, Australian newspapers reported rumours of Ivy as having suffered some serious but unspecified injuryThe Sporting Globe (Melb) 28 Feb 1923, P9 and The Sun (Syd) 17 Apr 1923, P11 via National Library of Australia’s Trove and finally, a correspondent for Melbourne’s Table Talk saw her in New York, in early 1923. This paper reported that although Ivy was “much thinner… she was expecting to start work again, as her leg was nearly right.” Table Talk (Melb) 22 March 1923, P32 For someone who knew how to generate publicity for good effect, Ivy’s silence about the dance injury she sustained suggests it was much more serious than ever acknowledged.
Most significantly, there does not appear to be any evidence she danced professionally again.
After a brief return to England in 1923, Ivy went back to the US, but this time, it was reportedly to pursue a film career in Hollywood.
Ivy ended up staying in Hollywood for about five years, although there is no evidence she appeared in any films. There is also no indication how she supported herself in the comfortable bungalow she lived in at 1424 Orange Grove Avenue. Reports show she mixed in with the large British film colony, and with Australians – becoming a close friend of Enid Bennett, and her sisters Marjorie and Catherine. By 1925, she was also associated romantically with Canadian-born producer Charles Christie (1882-1955). In April 1925, Photoplay reported that a wedding announcement for the couple was expected “any day.”Photoplay, Vol XXVII, April 1925, P17, via Lantern Digital Media project It would be easy to dismiss these stories as the usual creative Hollywood gossip, however shipping manifests show Ivy and Charles travelling back to the US on the SS Paris in October 1925, after a holiday in Europe together, including a visit to London’s Piccadilly Hotel. This seems to confirm a close personal association.Ship’s manifest SS Paris, 7-14 October 1925, US National Archives via Ancestry.com
Ivy retires from the stage
However, Charles Christie and Ivy did not marry. In mid 1928 she left California for a trip to Australia, accompanying Enid Bennett’s mother on the voyage. Ivy explained later that her trip was a personal one to see family, although there was considerable speculation she would perform again.Everyone’s (Aust) 25 July 1928, P48. Via National Library of Australia’s Trove She returned to London on the Otranto in late 1928 and from then on, made England her home.
In January 1932, Ivy married Australian-born Harley Street surgeon, John Ryan, in London. She announced she was retiring, although she had not been active on stage for ten years. What she really meant was that she was retiring from public life. She died in London on April 8, 1972, following a stroke.UK General Register Office, Death Certificate, Ivy May Ryan, 8 April 1972.
- Claudia Funder, Australian Performing Arts Collection, Melbourne.
Australian Performing Arts Collection, Melbourne
- See collection photo of Leon Kellaway – aka Jan Kowsky. The collection holds many items relating to Kellaway.
The collection also holds JC Williamson’s contracts for Ivy Shilling
National Library of Australia, Canberra -The Papers of Ivy Shilling 1904-1930
- The National Library of Australia has a small collection of Ivy Shilling’s papers. At the time of writing these had not been consulted. Michelle Potter’s article (see below) makes reference to the collection – MS 6410.
State Library of New South Wales, Sydney – The Papers of Fred Leslie 1882-1965
- The Mitchell Library has Fred Leslie’s papers. At the time of writing these had not been consulted.
J.A Wells account of Leslie’s life makes reference to this collection – MLMSS 7077/Boxes 1, 2X-8X
- Bemrose, Anna (2006) Australasian Drama Studies, Apr 2006; “The Boy from Mount Gambier: Robert Helpmann’s Early Career in Australia (1917-1932)” Via Proquest.
- Paul Cliff (2000) The Endless Playground: Celebrating Australian Childhood. National Library of Australia.
- Veronica Kelly (2013) Popular Entertainment Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 24-49. “Come Over Here! The Local Hybridisation of International ‘Ragtime Revues’ in Australia.” School of Drama, Fine Art and Music, Faculty of Education & Arts, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
- Hal Porter (1965) Stars of Australian Stage and Screen. Rigby Ltd.
- Michelle Potter (2005) National Library of Australia News, “The Papers of Ivy Schilling” 1 Feb 2005, P12-14. Via Informit.
- Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper (1977) Australian Film 1900-1977, A Guide to Feature Film Production. Oxford University Press.
- Eric Reade (1975) The Australian Screen. Lansdowne Press.
- J.P. Wearing (1982) The London Stage, 1910-1919 : A Calendar of Plays and Players. Scarecrow Press 1982
Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University
- Susan Johnston, ‘Watt, Walter Oswald (Toby) (1878–1921)’, published first in hardcopy 1990, accessed online 19 January 2023.
- Barry O. Jones and Peter O’Shaughnessy, ‘Fowler, Jack Beresford (1893–1972)‘, published first in hardcopy 1996, accessed online 20 January 2023.
- Janet McCalman, ‘Brenan, Jennie Frances (1877–1964)‘, published first in hardcopy 1979, accessed online 22 January 2023.
- Noël Pelly, ‘Kellaway, Harold Lionel (Leon) (1897–1990)‘, published first in hardcopy 2007, accessed online 19 January 2023.
- Martha Rutledge, ‘Brunton, Christine Dorothy (Dot) (1890–1977)’, published first in hardcopy 1993, accessed online 23 January 2023.
- ‘Dance Man’ the story of Fred Leslie by J.A.Wells
- Intriguing People website by Imogen Lyons
- National Portrait Gallery (UK) – Ivy Shilling
This site has been selected for archiving and preservation in the National Library of Australia’s Pandora archive
|↑1||Victoria, Births, Deaths and Marriages. Birth certificate 26916/1892|
|↑2||Julius and Louisa and Ivy’s brother Royal occupied the home for many years. It was later converted to apartments, and continues as this today|
|↑3||She attended South Yarra State School. See Prahran Chronicle (Vic) 14 Dec 1901, P3 and Prahran Chronicle (Vic) 16 Dec 1905 P3, via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑4||Michelle Potter (2005). A variant childhood story was that her mother was keen for her to take up piano. See West Bridgeford Advertiser 27 April 1918, P4 via British Library Newspaper Archive|
|↑5||The Bendigo Independent (Vic.) 16 May 1906, P1, via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑6||Potter states her first stage appearance was in a Mother Goose panto|
|↑7||See for example The Darling Downs Gazette (Qld.), 29 Jun 1909, P8 via Trove and Takanaki Herald 26 August 1909 P3 via National Library of New Zealand, Papers Past|
|↑8||See for example Evening News (Syd), 26 Sep 1910, P2 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑9||Table Talk, 18 July 1912, P19 via State Library of Victoria|
|↑10||Table Talk, 23 Jan 1913, P23 via State Library of Victoria|
|↑11||Punch (Melb) 2 March 1911. P24 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑12||E W Hornung (1890) A Bride from the Bush via Project Gutenburg, P107|
|↑13||The Sun (Syd) 17 March 1911, P12, via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑14||Sun (Syd) 23 March 1911, P1 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑15||See Eric Reade, P47|
|↑16||The Sydney Morning Herald 13 Mar 1911, P11 and National Advocate (NSW) 31 Mar 1911 P2 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑17||Table Talk, 6 April, 1911 P1, via State Library of Victoria.|
|↑18||The Bendigo Advertiser, 10 April 1911, P1 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑19||It transpired the shark was dead. The Sun (Syd) 21 Feb 1912, P6 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑20||National Advocate (NSW) 21 Feb 1912, P4 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑21||Australian Stage Pictorial, April 1913, P56, Via State Library of Victoria|
|↑22||The Sun (Syd) 25 May, 1913, P15 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑23||Watt was a well known society figure and had been aide-de-camp to the state governor. For reporting see numerous articles on National Library of Australia’s Trove, including Australasian (Melb) 21 June, 1913, P34|
|↑24||Theatre, 1 Jan 1914, P23 Via State Library of Victoria|
|↑25||Known as the “Harvester Judgement,” the basic wage was intended to set the living wage an unskilled labourer and dependent family would need|
|↑26||For more on this, see Veronica Kelly (2013)|
|↑27||Referee (Syd) 24 Dec 1913, P15 Via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑28||Anna Bemrose (2006) P50|
|↑29||The Daily News (Perth) 30 Jun 1914, P6 Via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑30||Birmingham Daily Gazette, 28 December 1914, P6, via British Library Newspaper Archive|
|↑31||Some went further than a name change. Ivy’s father maintained the pretence he was Irish-born all his life. See Births, Deaths and Marriages Victoria. Death Certificate, 1943, Julius Schilling 10555 / 1943|
|↑32||Theatre,(Sydney) 1 Jan 1921, P1, via State Library of Victoria|
|↑33||Variety 1 May 1917, P5, via the Internet Archive|
|↑34||Kinematograph Weekly (UK) 30 October 1919, P112. Via British Library Newspaper Archive|
|↑35||The Sketch 21 Feb 1917, P156. Copyright held by Illustrated London News Group. Via British Newspaper Archive|
|↑36||Sunday Times (Perth) 4 Jan 1920, P5 via|
|↑37||J.P. Wearing (1982), P484, citing The Stage newspaper|
|↑38||Daily Telegraph (Syd) 20 Sept 1920, P6, via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑39||Also on board was Dorothy Brunton, contracted to perform for JC Williamson’s.|
|↑40||Table Talk (Melb) 16 Sep 1920 P23 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑41||The Daily Telegraph (Syd) 23 May 1921, P3 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑42||later known as Leon Jankowsky or simply Jan Koswka, he was the brother of Alec and Cecil Kellaway|
|↑43||Table Talk (Melb) 11 August 1921, P7 via State Library of Victoria|
|↑44||Table Talk (Melb) 25 August 1921, P16, via State Library of Victoria|
|↑45||Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper (1977) P145|
|↑46||also known as The Land of Fantasy|
|↑47||the Australian quota for entry to the US in August had been filled and Ivy claimed she was unaware of visa requirements. See The Standard Union (New York) 19 Aug 1922, P2 and New York Tribune, 19 Aug 1922, P4|
|↑48||The Billboard, 23 Sept 1922, P17, via Lantern Digital Media Project|
|↑49||Hartford Courant (Connecticut) 27 Aug 1922, P36 via newspapers.com|
|↑50||The Sporting Globe (Melb) 28 Feb 1923, P9 and The Sun (Syd) 17 Apr 1923, P11 via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑51||Table Talk (Melb) 22 March 1923, P32|
|↑52||Left – Sunday Illustrated, 21 Oct 1923, P10, via British Newspaper Archive. Right – Billboard, 23 Nov 1923, via Lantern Digital Media Project|
|↑53||Photoplay, Vol XXVII, April 1925, P17, via Lantern Digital Media project|
|↑54||Ship’s manifest SS Paris, 7-14 October 1925, US National Archives via Ancestry.com|
|↑55||Daily News (New York) 26 Feb 1928, P375|
|↑56||Everyone’s (Aust) 25 July 1928, P48. Via National Library of Australia’s Trove|
|↑57||UK General Register Office, Death Certificate, Ivy May Ryan, 8 April 1972.|
|↑58||Daily Mirror, 21 Jan 1932. P24. Via British Newspaper Acrhive|