Alf Goulding – Triumphs and Tragedies with Pollard’s

A pensive Alf Goulding with other members of the Pollard Lilliputian Opera Company on the steps of the Badminton Hotel in Vancouver in 1905. He is flanked by Harold Fraser (Snub Pollard) and Teddie McNamara. The full photo of the Pollard Company is on the Vancouver As It Was website. Photo used with their permission.

The adult working life of prolific Hollywood based filmmaker, Alf Goulding (born 26 January 1885), is well documented. He had an impressive output as a director – working first with Hal Roach and later Mack Sennett. By the time he made A Chump at Oxford (1939) with Laurel and Hardy, he had directed over 200 films, and had written and appeared in many others. There were of course, a few duds – including his only Australian film, A Yank in Australia (1942).

It’s less commonly known that Goulding owed much to his long experience with the Pollard Lilliputian Opera Company, and that he was a Melbourne neighbour and long-time friend of Daphne Pollard (Trott) and Snub Pollard (Harold Fraser).

Alf Goulding can be traced through at least six Pollard’s overseas tours (which all ran for more than 12 months) – something of a record – this writer can only find one other Pollard’s performer who matches it – Irene Findlay. It’s hard to know if many people have ever really run away “to join the circus”,  but Alf Goulding is indeed a variation on this. Between the age of eleven, when he went on his first Pollard’s tour, and twenty-four, when he left to settle in the US, he could not have spent more than 24 months living in Melbourne.

Goulding’s place of birth was the suburb of Richmond, but he lived most of his brief Australian life in Fitzroy. His father Frank, a bootmaker, and mother Maggie (stage name Maggie Walsh) were both involved in local Melbourne theatre, with moderate success. Alf’s half-sister from his mother’s first marriage, Elsa Goulding (sometimes known as Elsie Golding), had gained some reputation as a singer by 1893 and, determined to maintain the family tradition, Frank encouraged his oldest son Frank junior, Alf and later his youngest daughter Irene to go on stage. By the time of Maggie’s death in April 1895, Frank junior and Alf had developed a popular act together. Reports from papers in 1894 and 1895 stated that the brothers had the Melbourne audiences in “roars of laughter”.

 

Left: The white terrace house at 431 George Street, Fitzroy photographed in 2019. The Goulding family lived here in 1895. Photo – Author’s collection.
Right: Photos of Alf in his early days are hard to find. This photo, now in the public domain, is from c.1905-10 and its original source is unknown. Via wikimedia commons. 

Triumphs, Tragedies and child labour

In 1896, Frank junior and Alf  joined a troupe of the Pollard’s Lilliputian Opera Company. Under the management of Charles Pollard, this group of under-age performers departed in September for a tour of colonial audiences in South East Asia (Hong Kong, Manila, Singapore etc) and India, where they were received with great enthusiasm. Their father Frank was paid a monthly wage for both children performing, while their travel, food and accommodation costs were covered by Pollard’s. According to a contemporary Singapore paper,  whilst touring, the child performers with Pollard’s had the following program;

  • 9.00 am breakfast,
  • 10 am until 1.30 pm rehearsal, then had
  • 1.30 “Tiffin” (an Indian term for a meal),
  • two hours of siesta, then
  • two hours of lessons with the teacher (who doubled as the cornet player) ,
  • then play and rest before a light dinner and
  • the evening performance.

Singapore Free Press 23 Feb 1897Unfortunately a terrible tragedy occurred when Frank junior died and was buried in Calcutta, in January 1897. We can only imagine how hard this was for Alf, still on tour, let alone his father and sister back in Melbourne. His Indian death certificate clearly lists the cause of death as smallpox, an even greater tragedy given that a vaccine existed at the time. One wonders if Frank’s father ever knew the truth.

Frank Junior’s death from “pneumonia” is reported by “The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser”, 23 Feb 1897, via Newspapers SG – digitized newspaper collection. 

Yet it was all back to work for the Pollard’s children. Two months later, on April 20, 1897, the same Singapore newspaper reported;  “Master Alfred Goulding scored the principal success again, this clever boy keeping the house in fits of laughter… In the part of Lurcher, the bailiff…his acting could not easily have been beaten by a professional comedian.” Of course, Alf was a professional comedian – even if he was only 13 years old at the time.

In August 1898, a second Pollard’s troupe, including Alf and now with Irene, arrived in South Africa. Interviewed in July 1899 by a correspondent for the Sydney Referee , the children were probably all instructed to put a positive spin on their work, the endless travel and to not mention their homesickness. From Johannesburg, South Africa, the correspondent wrote of Alf Goulding, as “the clever young comedian of the company, aged 12 years” and Irene Goulding, “a bonny girl of 8 years.. who hadn’t been very well lately.”  Pollard practice was very typically never to accurately give the ages of the child performers. Alf was in fact 14, and Irene 10.

china mail dec 26 1900With the outbreak of the Boer War, Manager Charles Pollard apparently rushed the company to safety. But it seems he was in no hurry to bring them home – it was July 1900 before the children were all back in Australia, via Hong Kong and other stops in the “far east”, and Charles with exciting war stories to tell. How seriously at risk they were is impossible to tell now.

Gillian Arrighi and others have written of the phenomenon of the child performer tours, and the later impact of the disastrous 1910 Pollard tour of India; which saw new Australian laws restricting children leaving Australia to be performers. It’s also worth pausing and looking past the modern nationalist sentiment we might attach to these pioneer Australian performers today, to wonder whether this was really just another form of child exploitation, even by the standards of the time.

Above: Alf Goulding now listed as the Pollard’s stage manager by the “China Mail,” December 26, 1900. He was almost 16 and the troupe were perhaps on their way home from South Africa. Image via Hong Kong Public Libraries Multi Media Information Systems.

There is some good reason for thinking this. By leaving Australia, not only did Pollard’s avoid Australian education laws, they were also able to essentially not pay their performers, certainly not at adult rates. Parents were paid via a trust fund. And was a life on stage a healthy upbringing for a child? Even at the time, many didn’t think so. The influence of the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, or the “Gerry Society” kept Pollard’s away from the east coast of the US, as is obvious from the tour map below. The society’s opposition to children performing on stage was well-known. The Chicago Tribune of 19 May 1902 touched on this issue in a long article about the company during their only visit to that city; “Although the idea of keeping children on the stage is repugnant to Americans, and although it is forbidden by law in some states, the Pollards claim that their children… suffer no evil effects from the experience.” 

We should also remember that the Pollard’s performers were playing adult roles on stage, a fact that some commentators found confronting, given the adult content of the musicals they performed. One correspondent for the Hong Kong Daily Press on December 27, 1907 reminded readers “Pollard’s Lilliputians are children, but their performance is anything but childish… That shrimp of a maiden …who portrays a woman many times divorced, how are we to regard her?” (in reference to a leading character in The Belle of New York). Yet at the end of their review, the writer felt the need to abandon their concerns and recommended all readers should see it. The Pollard’s performance was “beyond praise” the writer concluded.

A life of touring

Alf’s tours with Pollard’s Lilliputian Opera Company, managed by Charles Pollard and Nellie Chester – as identified so far by this writer are:

  • I. Sept 1896 – c. Sept 1897, Tour to India and the “Far East” (meaning Manila, Singapore, Hong Kong)
  • II. August 1898 – c. Dec 1900, Tour to South Africa and the Far East.
  • III. September 1901 – October 1902, Tour to North America
    Manifests show SS Sierra departed Sydney 3 Sept 1901, SS Aorangi arrived back in Australia on 17 Oct 1902. Then, three months later…
  •  IV. January 1903 – April 1904, Tour to North America.
    Manifests show SS Changsa departed Sydney 18 Jan 1903, SS Miowera arrived back in Australia on 2 April 1904.

None of this travel seems to have bothered Alf Goulding, indeed he may well have had his own reasons for not wanting to live at home. Back in Melbourne, Frank Senior found the new century and the life without wife, children and oldest son increasingly hard to deal with. Now a bootmaker, he blamed the Pollard company management for the death of Frank Junior and began to send abusive letters to the Melbourne managers, even while they engaged Alf and Irene. He complained that the money promised to him by Pollard’s was not being paid. Frank had already been publicly embarrassed the year before, when details of his passionate letters to a sometime servant/petty thief were plastered about the Melbourne papers. Now in 1903, his stream of abusive letters saw him end up in court again, a lonely father, perhaps also disconnected from his two children. When he failed to pay the £20 fine, he went to gaol for a month.

Returning to Australia on SS Miowera on 2 April 1904, Irene, now aged 15, apparently decided she had had enough of performing and touring.

  • V. July 1904 – February 1907, Tour to the Far East and North America. Departed July 1904 for Queensland and then 27 September 1904 for Hong Kong. Arrived July 8 1905 in Vancouver. Arrived back in Australia 26 February 1907 on the SS Moana.

 

Pollard's in Canada and the US 1905-1907

The Pollard Company’s “Grand Tour” of North America (March 1905- Jan 1907) avoided much time in the eastern USA, where child labour law made performances impossible. The troupe was in Sacramento during the April 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The map is based on company member Midas Martyn’s diary. Thanks to Catherine Crocker for sharing this information. Courtesy Google Maps. Click to go to the google map
  • VI. July 1907 – April 1909, to the Far East and North America
    Another trip departed in late July 1907,  again testing out shows in Queensland before departing for the Far East. The Company arrived in the US on the SS Nippon Maru from Yokohama, Japan on 3 March, 1908. It appears most of the company from this tour arrived home in Australia on RMS Makura in April, 1909.

Ald 1911Charles Pollard announced his retirement in March 1909, while the company was in Honolulu, heading home. At this point, many of the older company members, including Alf, decided to branch out with their own Pollard’s Company (dropping Lilliputians from the title). With about 15 others, including Carrie Moore’s sisters Olive and Ivy, Harold Fraser and Teddie McNamara, a new adult Pollards troupe would be established. And indeed, through 1910, the group set off again back across Canada, with Alf as Actor – Director-Stage Manager. But instead of storming the US east coast as they planned, they again specialised in visiting all the familiar Pollard’s locations where their popularity was assured.

Alf in makeup as Ko-Ko for the Mikado. The Province, British Columbia, 11 April, 1911. Via Newspapers.com

But by 1914, the adult Pollard troupe had broken up, and for a time they went their separate ways.

LA Times 28 May 1914

Alf and Daphne Pollard performing together in “A Knight for a Day,” Los Angeles, May 1914. Los Angeles Times, 28 May 1914. Vis Newspapers.com

Alf Goulding appears to have maintained a personal and professional friendship with former Pollard Company performers for much of his life. In 1911, Alf was married to Gladys Watson, with Daphne (Mrs Ellington Bunch) and her husband as witnesses. They were married in Seattle by the same official as Daphne and her husband had used, exactly three months before.

Below: Marriage certificates for Daphne Trott and Alf Goulding weddings. US national archives via Family search.org.

 

It is hardly a coincidence therefore that Goulding is reputed to have been instrumental in convincing Daphne to work for Mack Sennett, and he was apparently on hand when she arrived at Sennett studios. He also directed a number of her first films – including “Run Girl Run,” “The Swim Princess” and “The Campus Carmen”. He also worked closely with Harold Fraser in his early years in Hollywood.

 

Left: This is the only photo I have seen of Goulding at work. It shows Snub Pollard (Harold Fraser), Harold Lloyd, and Alf Goulding at right, on the set of “Somewhere in Turkey” (1918) Source: Unknown – via Pinterest.
Right: Advertisment for Rolin Comedies – Snub Pollard and Ernie Morrison, directed by Alf Goulding. Source: Wikimedia Commons. 

There was perhaps a real camaraderie amongst the old Pollard players. For Alf, the performers he knew had probably been family. When former Pollard alumni Teddie McNamara died of pneumonia in early February 1928, on the eve of great success, all the Hollywood based former Pollard players attended his funeral – Goulding, Daphne Pollard, Harry Fraser and Billy Bevan. 

Alf Goulding died in Hollywood in 1972, after a long and very well documented career as a screenwriter and director. The later career of the talented Irene Goulding is not clear, but it appears she may have worked in sales in Melbourne. She married Albert Smith in 1931, and lived most of her later life in a comfortable house in Riversdale Rd, Hawthorn.

Nick Murphy, May 2018 updated February 2019

 

Further reading

  • Gillian Arrighi (2017) The Controversial “Case of the Opera Children in the East”: Political Conflict between Popular Demand for Child Actors and Modernizing Cultural Policy on the Child.
    “Theatre Journal” No 69, 2017. John Hopkins University Press.
    (This can be purchased at https://www.press.jhu.edu )
  • Amy Kitcherside: Turn The page; a review of Kirsty Murray’s “India Dark”
  • Stage Whispers; Theatrical Child Labour Scandal
  • Child Stars of the Stage; Gillian Arrighi, National Library of Australia.
  • Brent E. Walker (2010) “Mack Sennett’s Fun Factory: A History and Filmography of His Studio and His Keystone and Mack Sennett Comedies, with Biographies of Players and Personnel.” McFarland and Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-3610-1

From National Library of Australia, Trove, Digitised Newspaper Collection

Hong Kong Public Libraries Multi Media Information Systems

Singapore Government Digitised newspapers project Newspaper SG

Newspapers.com

 

 

 

 

Saharet: The Dancer from Richmond

Above: Saharet in about 1898, as she appeared on numerous postcards.

The celebrated dancer Saharet was born Paulina Clarissa Molony, on 23 March 1878, to Benjamin Robert Molony, an illiterate Irish tailor and Elizabeth (nee Foon), a 19-year-old of part Chinese ancestry from Ballarat. She was delivered at home in Rowena Parade, in the heart of the working class Melbourne suburb of Richmond. A sister, Martha Lily, was born in 1879 and another, Julia Millicent, in 1881.


Birth Cert 1.jpgAbove: Part of Paulina Clarissa Molony’s Australian birth certificate, dated 23 March, 1878.  Via Births, Deaths & Marriages, Victoria
Transcription of Birth Certificate;
Columns
2 – 23 March 1878. Rowena Parade. Town of Richmond, County of Bourke
3 – Paulina Clarissa. Not present
4 – Female
5 – Benjamin Molony. Tailor. 25. Limerick Ireland [Father’s name, age, place of birth]
6 – March 17, 1877, Melbourne Victoria [Date of marriage]
7 – Elizabeth Molony formerly Foon, 19. Ballarat Victoria. [Mother’s name, maiden name, age, place of birth]

Paulina Clarissa (or Clarice as she preferred) made her way from the humblest of backgrounds in Richmond, to fame and fortune in Europe and the US in the early twentieth century. As Saharet, she was painted by leading European artists of the day and appeared on countless postcards, a clever and audacious dancer, and a vibrant young woman. Yet much of her life remains an enduring mystery and the few contemporary accounts of her life tend only to amplify errors made by others, such as the oft- repeated but incorrect claim she died in Melbourne in 1942. But when she lived at her home in the Michigan town of Battle Creek in the early 1960s, she left behind the key to her story. She had told friends her parents’ names; Benjamin Malony (note the variation of surname Molony) and Eveline “nee De Vere” which was at least, partly true. Her 1964 obituary in the Battle Creek Enquirer, the local newspaper, noted the day of her Australian birth, but sadly, nothing was said of her illustrious career as one the world’s leading dancers before the Great War, when she was the toast of Europe’s theatre society.

This writer believes much of the mystery surrounding Saharet’s upbringing relates to her Ballarat Chinese ancestry, something she and her mother wanted to disassociate themselves from as quickly as they could. (See Note 2 below)


Rowena Parade 2018 edited

Rowena Parade in 2018, looking West towards central Melbourne. The shop on the left was, coincidentally, built in the same year as Saharet’s birth – 1878. Author’s collection.
Boarding House Nicholson St Fitzroy  McCormack Place
Left: In November 1881, Saharet’s mother gave birth to another daughter – Julia Mallicino (Millicent), at 168 Nicholson St, Fitzroy – almost certainly a boarding house. Author’s Collection.

Right: On the birth certificate of Julia Mallicino (see Note 2 below), Saharet’s mother listed her residence as 4 McCormac Place Melbourne, then a part of the 
notorious“Little Lon” district, a “slum” neighbourhood now entirely demolished. The house would have been in the right middle distance. This then, was home for little Clarice.
This photo was taken about 1950 before the demolition by a Public Works photographer.Click on the image to go to the State Library of Victoria record. 

As an adult, she was an attractive looking woman with a powerful stage presence. Standing about medium height -168 cms tall (five foot five inches), with grey eyes and a mass of dark brown hair, she was a highly skilled and flexible dancer. “What Saharet can’t do with her legs is not worth the average mortal’s worth while trying to learn” wrote one journalist. Another journalist described her as “really an expert gymnast and contortionist. What she does is to give a wild whirling dance, in the course of which she introduces somersault splits, fabulous high kicking, cart wheels and other difficult feats … It is a marvellous exhibition of gymnastic skill, but, at the same time, the dancer is mirthful and beautiful, and the dance a delight to the eye.”

Unfortunately, a critical part of Clarice’s early story in Australia currently remains unknown. Who taught her to dance and particularly, what were the circumstances surrounding the obvious change in fortune that occurred between her birth in Melbourne in 1878 and her appearance as a dancer in the United States in 1891. We do not know how she paid her way from Melbourne to California or exactly when this occurred. Her parents had been so poor they could not afford a memorial for her sister Martha Lily when she died in early 1881, after suffering “convulsions”, probably the result of typhoid fever, then so prevalent in Melbourne.

A later British account claimed she studied under US actress Minnie Palmer, who was in Melbourne in 1886-1887. Still another account claimed she worked for three years for well-known theatrical entrepreneur Harry Rickards. The most plausible accounts suggested she appeared on stage in Melbourne, performing in the corps de ballet at the Theatre Royal, under the direction of English choreographer Marie Reddall (who worked in Australia with her husband, Actor- Director E. W. Royce between 1886 and 1892). There could be truth in all these claims.


                                          San Franciso Examiner March 1894        Los Angeles Times April 1894Garnett Journal Nov 13 1896
Left: Saharet appears in print in The San Francisco Examiner, California, March 4, 1894
Centre: Saharet, also known as Clarice Campbell, described as a “wonderfully lithe and graceful” high kicker in the Los Angeles Times, California, April 5, 1894.
Right: This November 13 1896 report in the Garnett Journal (Kansas) appears to be amongst the most accurate accounts of her early life.  Via Newspapers.com  
(Thanks to Martin Goebel)

Researcher Martin Goebel has found that as Clarice Campbell, she joined the “Liliputians,” a company performing at San Francisco’s Baldwin Theater in May 1891,  indicating a likely arrival in the US earlier that year. Over time, newspaper reports of dubious reliability appeared, recounting her early efforts to establish herself. She was only 13 and perhaps she really did appear as a dime museum fortune teller and then a mermaid, as the Detroit Free Press was to recount. However, it is well documented that by early 1894 she was using the stage name Saharet and in April she had joined M.B. Leavitt’s “Spider and Fly” vaudeville company – touring US cities. Through 1895 she was most closely associated with another popular touring vaudeville show – “The Night Owls”.


 

 


Left:Saharet’s “fabulous high kicking” can be seen here in this postcard by Reutlinger of Paris. From the Author’s collection. Right: Saharet and Ike Rose, with daughter Carrie. From an unidentified German paper.
c 1902. Rather than squandering her fortune as Rose was to claim, Saharet appears to have spent it caring for her daughter and her niece. Author’s collection.

In May 1896 18-year-old Saharet married New York entrepreneur Isaac Rosenstamm (later known as Ike Rose), while she was also three months pregnant to him. Over time, it was Rose who managed her career and passed around stories about her identity – that she was born in Melbourne – or perhaps it was Ballarat, the daughter of a well-known pastoralist (rancher). This constant narration about her all appears to be part of a concerted effort to advance her career and later, to create interest in Rose’s other professional activities, even after the couple separated. Rose appears to have written much of the commentary that was attributed to her and this, combined with the freewheeling use of different surnames by Clarice’s mother, only added to the confusion. Rose himself was creative with his own history, acknowledging his birth in Hanover, Germany in 1865 in his first US passport application, but in later documents not only anglicising his name, but also claiming to have been born in New York.

Not surprisingly, not everyone believed that the beautiful young dancer who could throw her leg over her head, do the splits, and winked cheekily to her audiences was an Australian, just because she said she was. At least some Australian journalists were suspicious, particularly as there appeared to be no family or friends back home to claim her. When renowned German singer Otto Reutter happily posed with one arm around her and the other around a bottle of Champagne in 1908, the sense of “foreignness” about her was only reinforced. Saharet had little to say herself, yet the story persisted everywhere that she was Australian – and when a British journalist writing for the London Daily Mail newspaper managed to meet her in 1898, he was left with no doubt she was an Australian, born in Melbourne. Others, including Anglo-German Count Harry Graf Kessler, who met her in about 1900, believed this too. Surviving samples of her handwriting display the confident hand of a well-educated, native English-speaker.


Saharet signature

Above: Part of Saharet’s signature. Author’s collection.
Below: Saharet appears doubled on this postcard – a not uncommon device of the time. c1905. Author’s collection.

Saharet 3


Her stage turn, often part of a varied program, appears to have lasted for less than 15 minutes, and yet she seemed to speak to audiences of a coming era of freedom and joyfulness. Like Isadora Duncan, Saharet’s style can be seen as a fore-runner in the development of the modern dance movement. This was characterised by the rejection of traditional forms of classical ballet and the embracing of new concepts in dance – to express human emotions and realism. The Austrian writer Hermynia Zur Mühlen saw Saharet perform whilst still a child. In her 1929 autobiography, she recalled “I have never again seen such natural grace and charm, the expression simultaneously, of a little wild animal and a beautifully refined woman.” The German artist Emil Nolde also recalled watching her dance, like some “primeval being.” Rose fed the story that she had been given a fortune in diamonds by European admirers, and was earning another fortune by performing. It was probably true. He also encouraged her to sit for numerous accomplished and emerging French and German artists, including Maurice Biais in about 1902, by Franz Von Stuck in 1906 and by Leo Rauth in 1911. Saharet’s relationship with Rose had drifted by 1907 and the couple separated, although Rose remained her manager for another five years and his influence on her career continued to be significant.


Photos of Saharet

Above: Saharet as she appears in the Jean Reutlinger (1891-1914) Album of various portraits. Source – Bibliothèque Nationale de France – National Library of France, Gallica -Digital collection.  via Wikipedia Commons

In fact, Saharet’s great notoriety was gained in Europe, not the US. She first appeared in theatres in the UK in 1897 and in France and Germany after 1898 where she was to become phenomenally popular. Rose also arranged for the couple to travel to Russia at least several times in the early twentieth century, where she developed a significant following. After much European travel and numerous trips to and from Europe and the US and England, she finally left Germany for the last time in late 1914, possibly as late as the outbreak of war in August. This seems to have marked the end of her European presence. Her adventures in German silent film, a career direction cut short by the war, were typical of the forays well-known stage performers made in first few decades of the twentieth century – these two reel films were something of a novelty, and the sort of publicity generating activity that stage performers might dabble in. At the time no one could guess the power narrative film would come to have a few decades later. Saharet made at least four films in Germany between 1912 and 1914 – although at the time of writing it is unknown whether any of these survive. One very early film of Saharet has miraculously survived – a hand tinted rarity made in France by pioneering director Alice Guy-Blaché in 1905. In it, Saharet dances the Bolero for just a few minutes. The film would have been shown as part of a mixed vaudeville review show, one that consisted of live acts interspersed with short films.

Watch it here

When Rose visited Australia in early 1913, promoting his other acts, Saharet’s birthplace had become Ballarat. In an oft-repeated interview about her life, Rose claimed that she had left Australia as a youngster, after some work in theatre in Melbourne. He had discovered her performing in New York in “The Night Owls”, earning a mere £7 per week. Through his influence he quickly got her £30 per week and from September 1897, an engagement in New York with Edward Rice’sFrench Maid,” which played at the Herald Square Theater.

Rose told reporters that Saharet received £750 for acting in her first German film, “In a Golden Cage,” and £1,000 for her second. But Rose had apparently advised against appearing on the screen as he felt the new medium did not suit her as a dancer. Rose claimed that her 1913 salary “was now £300 to £400 a week.” By this time he had also arranged for her to receive a percentage of the takings for her live performances.

By the time Rose was saying this in Australia, the couple were professionally and personally separated. Citing desertion and his infidelity, Saharet began proceedings against Rose in October 1912, and the divorce was finalised in 1913. Soon after, she married German-born US millionaire Fritz von Frantzius. Von Frantzius had long been an ardent admirer of hers, but their marriage was a disaster, as she abandoned him after only a few days for a new partner on stage and off – Jose Florido. She performed with Florido in the US and Britain for several years and clearly intended to marry him, but never did. Variety magazine’s 1914 review of their new act was positive and outlined exactly what her program looked like;

“Saharet has lost none of her charm, nor indeed her stage looks…Her dancing partner, Senor J. Florido, is a lithe, slender, virile Spanish youth… Saharet alone does her first number, programed as a minuette. It consists of pirouettes and posing of the old- style ballet school. It is a trifle disappointing… Florido follows with a solo dance, The Sabaje, which is strident and of toreador inception. It consists of some twists and a series of rapid stamping and taps, all on the heels. Third is a Spanish castanet dance by both, with Carmen and Toreador entrance, well done but on old style lines. Nothing sensational until the fourth and final number, Tango Argentine. Saharet and Florido’s is the genuine South American, sensuous thing… It is a violent, living, palpitant affair that earns for them the applause it richly deserves.”

But by 1916, reviews of her New York performances in “Sesame of Love” were less enthusiastic. Perhaps, in the midst of war, the public appetite for performance was already changing.

In 1917 Saharet married again, to a third German-born New Yorker and her latest theatrical agent – Maxim P (Phideus) Lowe. Soon after, she retired from the stage for good.
Ike and Saharet’s only child, Caroline Madelon Rose  was born in New York in November 1896. Known to all as Carrie, she accompanied her parents throughout their first European tours. In time, young Carrie experienced a life as tumultuous as her mother’s. In 1906, she was placed in a convent school in Belgium and later, another convent in Essex, England. Carrie then had a go at following her mother onto the stage and performed in England under the unbelievably mundane stage name of  Dorothy Siddons. She closely resembled her mother in appearance and her choice of dancing and acting as a career seems understandable, although she only met with mixed success. In the early 1920s, Carrie rebooted her acting career, this time as Madeline (also Madelon) La Varre. With this exotic name she appeared with greater success, in fleshy roles on Broadway and in two films. In 1927, Carrie changed course again, leaving the stage and entering a Carmelite Convent in the USA. She finally found her calling in 1944, when she joined the US Naval Reserve, becoming one of the first women to achieve the rank of Lieutenant Commander during World War Two. An amazing transformation.


Maxim P Lowe c1921 carrie rosenstamm Archibald McKenzie passport 1919 Clarice Edith Roberts
A Saharet Family Album
From left: Third husband Maxim P. Lowe c.1920, Daughter Caroline “Carrie” Rose c.1920, Half brother Archibald McKenzie c.1920, Saharet’s niece Clarice Roberts. c 1920.
All passport photos shown above are via Ancestry, from the US National Archives

Saharet, now calling herself Clarice Saharet Lowe, was 85 years old in 1964. When alert neighbours near 41 Ivanhoe Street, Battle Creek, realised they hadn’t seen her for some time, the local Police were called to break into her house. They found her body in the bath. It was 24th of July and she died alone, because sadly, daughter Carrie had taken her life after a catastrophic car accident, 14 years before. Her half-brother Archibald McKenzie was by then her closest living relative.

Saharat in BCE 1964
Text of Saharet’s obituary in The Battle Creek Enquirer, July 24, 1964. Via Newspapers.com

What sense can we make of this Australian girl who really could dance so spectacularly she developed an international reputation in just a few years? Why did she retire to Battle Creek in Michigan? Somewhere, hopefully, someone still has the photos and scrap books that she must have kept, detailing her extraordinary life, one that must have been rich in experiences.

Notes:

  1. A heavily tattooed French dancer called herself “Saharet” in the 1920s. She is unrelated to the subject of this account.

  2. Saharet’s mother was born Elizabeth Ah Foon in Ballarat in 1858. She lived a tumultuous life and is probably worth an entire biography of her own. Elizabeth, later to call herself Eveline, was the oldest of a large family born in Ballarat to 19 year-old Caroline Ramsay and her first husband, 24 year-old gold miner William Moy Ah Foon. She appears in the Ballarat Benevolent Asylum’s register as “pregnant and destitute” in September 1873 and reappears in the historical record in an authorised (but underage) marriage in 1874 followed by the birth of another child in 1875. Thus, she had already given birth to two children before she had Paulina Clarissa.

    Throughout her life, Elizabeth / Eveline went to great efforts to remain anonymous, consistently obscuring her identity by repeated changes of surname – Molony, Martella, Campbell, McKenzie, De Vere and claims that she was “born at sea”, or of Scottish or French-Canadian ancestry. It was remarkably easy to do this because until the First World War, people could travel internationally without formal documents. Eveline’s motivation for the endless and confusing changes of identity can only be guessed now, but its most likely this was a means to control her own destiny and maintain her independence. Perhaps it also explains why she preferred the great cultural melting pot of Brooklyn New York, as her home. It is highly likely that Saharet’s part-Chinese ethnicity, combined with the fact her parents Eveline and Benjamin Molony were probably not married, explains Saharet’s reluctance to discuss her origins very comprehensively. In the deeply race conscious societies Saharet was having such success in, to be of mixed race background could have meant the end of her career.

    US patented Child's carriageShe is almost certainly the same Eveline/Evelyn Campbell, “the Australian Sporting Lady,” who appeared in a rowing competition with a US woman in San Francisco in April 1893. In a lengthy interview with The San Francisco Call on March 28, 1893, this Eveline revealed her daughter was on the stage, and by her comments clearly had experience of living in Melbourne. But lacking the rowing experience she claimed, she lost the competition and missed the $250 prize.  Intriguingly however, it seems she received $14,000 for a patented “child’s carriage” at about the same time.

    (see Stanley P.331. Also see US patent No. 495,301 Patented Apr. 11, 1893)

     

    Julia Mellicino Moloney

    Above: Part of the birth certificate of Saharet’s younger sister Julia Mallicino Moloney, born November 11, 1881. Eveline gives her name as Elizabeth Eveline Ah Pack and no father is listed. Julia took to calling herself Millicent and died in New York in January 1906. Saharet took over the care of Millicent’s daughter Clarice Roberts after she died. Via Births, Deaths & Marriages, Victoria

    Eveline Mckenzie travel to the US in 1919a

    Above: An edited manifest for the SS Rotterdam, arriving in New York in 1919, reflecting the changes in travel requirements after the First World War. Eveline McKenzie’s age and birthplace – “Ballard” Australia are revealed, as she must have travelled on a British passport.  Note that her trip was paid for by her daughter, Mrs C.S. Lowe of New York (right hand section enlarged below)  Via Ancestry, from the US National Archives

    evelyn 3

     

    Even in death Elizabeth/Eveline managed to maintain fiction. When she died in Brooklyn, New York in 1936, Caroline Ramsay was acknowledged as her mother on the death certificate. However, her father was listed as “Walter Besant”, here she had chosen the name of a well known C19th novelist and historian. Her real father, William Moy Ah Foon was never acknowledged on any documents (nor Caroline’s second husband – traditional Chinese doctor, Lo Kwoi Sang.)

    Elizabeth/Eveline did not maintain any connection with her extended family in Ballarat. According to Mark Lepp, a descendant of Caroline Ramsay, the family knew she had gone to America, but nothing more. Caroline waited patiently of news of her oldest daughter, which never came. But its interesting that in far away New York, Saharet chose her grandmother’s name – Caroline – for her only child.


 

Nick Murphy,  Updated and links repaired July 2019

 


For further reading:

Books

  • Autumn Stanley (1995) Mothers and Daughters of Invention: Notes for a Revised History of Technology. P. 331, Rutgers University Press.
  • Edward Ross Dickinson (2017) Dancing in the Blood: Modern Dance and European Culture on the Eve of the First World War. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wilhelm Benignus (1913) Woman’s Soul. Sonnets, Odes and Songs, p.70. Max Schmetterling, New York.(In a footnote in this book Saharet’s father is claimed to be a John Campbell.)
  • Hermynia Zur Mühlen (1929) The End and the Beginning: The Book of My Life.
  • Averil King (2013) Emil Nolde: Artist of the Elements. I.B.Taurus

Websites

Newspapers

Via the National Library of Australia’s Trove

  • The Argus, 19 Nov 1898. A report of a Daily Mail interview with Saharet.
  • The Daily Herald, Feb 3, 1913.
  • The Catholic Press, July 14, 1927.
  • Sunday Times, Feb 14, 1909
  • Numerous Australian papers covered Ike Rose’s 1913 visit. See for example, The Mail, 1 Feb, 1913

Via Newspapers.com

  • Battle Creek Enquirer July 24, 1964 reports Mrs Clarice S Lowe’s death.
  • Battle Creek Enquirer March 12, 1947 reports on Carrie M Rose
  • Variety Feb 1, 1914